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CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



Samuel P. Avery Gift, 



cw'^^ CATALOGUE 



OF 



ETCHINGS AND LITHOGRAPHS 



PRESENTED BY 



SAMUEL P. AVERY 



TO THE 



COOPER UNION MUSEUM 



For the Arts of Decoration. 



COMPILED BY 

FiTZROY CARRINGTON 



NEW YORK 
1898 



Index to Names of Artists, Alphabetically Arranged. 

PAGE. 

Appian, Adolphe 5 

Bracquemond, Felix 6 

Brunet-Debaines, Alfred 6 

Cassatt, Mary 7 

Chauvel, Theophile 8 

Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille 9 

Courtry, Charles Jean Louis 9 

Desboutin, Marcellin lo 

Elsen, Madame Alfred lo 

Faruflfini, Federico lo 

Flameng, Leopold 1 1 

Gerome, Jean Leon 12 

Gravesande, Charles Storm van's. 12 

Haden, Sir Francis Seymour 13 

Halpin, Frederick s;^ 

Hillemacher, Frederic 15 

Huet, Paul 15 

Jacque, Charles .... 16 

Jacquemart, Jules 17 

Jacquemyns, Madame Rolin 21 

Knaus, Lud wig 21 

Le Rat, Paul 22 

Leys, Baron Hendrik 22 

Martial, Adolphe P 23 

Millet, Jean Frangois 30 

Queyroy, Armand , 31 

Rajon, Paul 31 

Ribot, Theodule 32 

Ridley, M. W 33 



APPIAN, ADOLPHE. [French School.] 

Born at Lyons in 1819. 

A pupil, in painting, of Corot and Daubigny. His numer- 
ous etchings and his charcoal drawings, as well as his paint- 
ings, are highly esteemed. 

" My admiration for Appian's work as an etcher (he is a 
charming painter also) was already great several years ago, but 
the more I see how rare his qualities are in contemporary art, 
or in any art, the more I feel disposed to value them. . . . 
His drawing of branches and sprays, whenever they happen to 
come clearly against what is behind them, is always perfectly 
delightful, and quite as much detailed as it need be, with light 
and shade hinted at or expressed almost to the very extremity 
of a twig. . . . He is fond of rocks and stones, and makes 
them substantial enough (in his pictures the rock-texture is 
always as good as it can be), but nobody can make a rock 
elegant. The finest of all Appian's qualities, however, is a 
certain poetry of sentiment, which pervades his subjects, espe- 
cially his river-subjects under evening light. In these he becomes 
truly the artist-poet, and as there is perfect harmony between 
the dreamy sentiment and the effortless execution, the effect of 
the work is marred by no harsh accent." (P. G. Hamerton, 
" Etching and Etchers," pp. 202-203.) 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX«. SifeCLE," Vol. I., 

pp. 16-17. 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 202-207. 

Une Moria a Bordiquier (Italie). 



Une Mare. Environs de Rossillon. 

" This has always seemed to me the most exquisite piece of 
free branch and stem drawing in the whole range of French 
etching. It is this, and much more than this ; for not only are 
the trees full of an inexpressible waywardness and grace, but 
the whole work — the bit of rocky bank, the little inlet of calm 
water, the sweet distance, and the delicate sky — all this material 
forms a perfect harmony, presented to us with the true passion 



of a tender and sensitive artist. No one but an artist can know 
how much this little place must have been loved before it could 
be etched so." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," p. 206.) 

BRACQUEMOND, FELIX. [French School.] 

Born at Paris in 1833. 

He studied painting under Joseph Guichard, a pupil of 
Ingres, and in 1852 exhibited a portrait, that of his grandmother, 
at the Salon. 

In 1849 his first etchings were made. His progress was rapid, 
but public recognition was slow, and as late as 1863 so masterly 
a plate as the " Portrait of Erasmus," after Holbein, was refused 
at the Salon. 

In 1872 he accepted the position of Director of the Art De- 
partment of the Haviland manufactory of porcelains, but re- 
signed in 1878, in order to devote himself entirely to etching. 

All the medals, including the Grand Medal of Honor, have 
been awarded to him. In 1882 he was made a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor, and an Officer of the same order in 1889. 

He has etched over six hundred plates, treating a great 
variety of subjects, and has also executed about forty litho- 
graphs. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE." 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 224-225, 

242-244. 
FREDERICK WEDMORE, " FINE PRINTS," pp. 83-85. 

Le Lapin de Garenne. 

Beraldi, No. 220. 

BRUNET-DEBAINES, ALFRED. [French School.] 

Born at Havre, November 5, 1845. 

His father was an architect and intended his son to follow 
the same profession, and therefore entered him in the Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts. Here he made little progress, and at the first op- 
portunity commenced the study of painting under the direction 
of Pils. Shortly afterwards he turned his attention to etching, 
and studied under Lalanne, Gaucherel and Jacquemart. 

His first etched work to be exhibited at the Salon (it was in 
1866) was "Ruins of Chateau de Tancaraille." In 1872 he re- 



ceived a second-class medal for two plates exhibited, and in the 
following year he was placed Hors Concours for six plates after 
various masters and his original plate of " Dome of Chateau de 
St. Germain." 

He has also had first-class medals at the Universal Ex- 
hibitions of London, Philadelphia, Vienna, Lyons, Havre and 
Bourges for his etchings, and a medal at the Salon for painting. 

He has etched about twenty original plates, and a number 
after the paintings of various artists. He has been especially 
successful in translating the works of Millais, Constable and 
W. B. Leader. 

Few etchers of the modern French School have produced 
such uniformly good work. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^ SIECLE," Vol. IV., 

pp. 22-25. 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 229-230, 378. 

Les Bords de La Seine a Rouen. 

Beraldi, No. 15. 

The artist's finest original etching. It was published in the 
" Portfolio." 



CASSATT, MARY. [American School.] 

Born at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

Studied at the Philadelphia Academy and then traveled in 
Italy, Spain and Holland. Later, in Paris, she met Monet, Re- 
noir, Pissarro and Degas, and under the direction of the last- 
named artist gained in breadth of treatment in painting. 

At the Columbian Exhibition, in Chicago, she was repre- 
sented, among other works in the Woman's Building, by her 
decorative painting, " Young Girls Picking Fruit," which was 
highly praised. 

In painting and in etching her finest work has been done in 
portraying women and young children. Many of her plates, 
showing a mother and child, are the truest and most sensitive 
presentments of the subject in etching. 

In 1893 an exhibition of her paintings, pastels, etchings and 
dry-points was made at the Durand-Ruel Galleries in Paris ; 
and, later, an exhibition was also made at the New York gal- 
leries of the same firm. 



M. Andre Mellerio, in his introduction to the catalogue of 
the exhibition of her works in Paris, states that he is of the 
opinion that Miss Cassatt is perhaps the only American artist, 
excepting Whistler, possessed of conspicuoustalent of a personal 
and distinguished sort. 

A Woman Holding a Child. 

A very characteristic dry-point. It was greatly admired, at 
the exhibition held in Paris, by such authorities as Ph. Burty 
and Henri Guerard. 

A Woman, Seated, with a Child. 

This unfinished etching does not portray childhood so suc- 
cessfully as do the majority of the artist's plates executed in 
dry-point. 

CHAUVEL, THEOPHILE. [French School.] 

Born at Paris, April 2, 1831. 

He studied under Bellet and Aligny for a short time and 
afterwards entered the studio of Picot. In 1854 he won the sec- 
ond "Prix de Rome," and in 1855 sent his first painting to the 
Salon. 

His first plates were etched in 1861. For some time he de- 
voted himself to original work, but in 1874 turned his attention 
to etching after the paintings of other artists, translating with 
remarkable success the works of Theodore Rousseau, Dupre, 
Daubigny and Corot. 

In 1878 he was awarded a second-class medal, and in the 
following year was created a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
He has also had numerous other awards since then, especially 
at the Universal Exposition at Paris in 1889. 

M. Beraldi catalogues 99 etchings and 14 lithographs by 
this artist. Many he praises in the warmest manner. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. IV., 
pp. 140-165. 

P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," p. 231. 

Les Bords du Loing. 

Beraldi, No. 35. 

An original etching, published in 1877. 



COROT, JEAN BAPTISTE CAMILLE. [French 

School.] 

Born in Paris, July 20, 1796. 

After receiving his education at the Lycee of Rouen, he was 
placed in a draper's shop. In 1818 he became a pupil of the 
painter Michallon, then of Victor Bertin, and finally completed 
his studies in Italy. At the beginning of his artistic career he 
was quite poor, but in later life he was well paid, and is said, at 
the height of his career, to have made as much as 200,000 francs 
in a single year by the sale of his paintings. His benevolence to 
the poor and to struggling artists was great, and during the siege 
of Paris his charities amounted to 25,000 francs or more. 

He received medals for his paintings in 1833, 1848, 1855 and 
1867. In 1846 he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 
and an Officer of the order in 1867. 

He died at Paris, February 22, 1875. There are fourteen 
etchings by him. 

" Corot has no sense whatever of the use of line (having 
thought and worked so much with the brush), and the conse- 
quence is that he runs all his lines together in a wild scribble 
for shading. . . . And yet the few etchings of Corot have 
one merit and charm — they do certainly recall to mind, by asso- 
ciation of ideas, his charming work in oil, so full of the sweetest 
poetical sentiment. All sins are forgiven to the true poets." (P. 
G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 223-224.) 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. V., pp. 

48-54- 
P. G. HAMERTON, " ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 223-224. 

Dans Les Dunes. (Soitvenir du Bois de La Haye.) 

Beraldi, No. 9. 

This plate was published in " Sonnets et Eaux-fortes" 
(1869), the same volume which contained Millet's etching of 
" La Fileuse." 



COURTRY, CHARLES JEAN LOUIS. [French School.] 

Born at Paris, March 11, 1846. 

He studied architecture from i860 to 1863, and then turned 
his attention to etching. Under the guidance of Gaucherel and 
Flameng he made rapid progress, and at the Salons of 1874 and 



lO 

1875 was awarded medals for his works. Many of his plates 
(there are about five hundred in all) are excellent. Several are 
remarkable. His style is generally vigorous (which well suits 
many of the paintings he has translated) and always interesting. 
In 1881 he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor for 
his etchings, and shortly before his death in 1897, he received 
the Medal of Honor of the Paris Salon. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX«. SIECLE," Vol. V., pp. 
61-70. 

Le Fils de Lofds XL 

Beraldi, No. 303. 

An original etching by Courtry, published in " Sonnets et 
Eaux-Fortes." 



DESBOUTIN, MARCELLIN. [French School.] 

Born at Cerilly in 1822, 

In 1850 he first seriously turned his attention to etching, and 
during his residence in Florence, from 1854 to 1875, translated 
several of the paintings by the old masters, owned by him. The 
larger portion of his work was, however, produced in Paris, be- 
tween 1875 and 1881. 

His finest plates are his portraits, executed in dry-point, 
from his own designs or from life. He has also produced fine 
works after the paintings of other artists, Rembrandt and Fra- 
gonard especially, 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX«. SIECLE," Vol. V.. 
pp. 188-194. 

Portrait of Madame Hecta de Callias. 



ELSEN, MADAME ALFRED. [Belgian School.] 

Roses and Fuchsias. 

FARUFFINI, FEDERICO. [Italian School.] 

Born at Sesto San Giovanni in 1833. He exhibited a num- 
ber of pictures at the Paris Salon, obtaining a medal in 1866 for 



his painting of " Macchiavelli and Csesar Borgia," and died at 
Milan in 1870. 

An Egyptian Sacrifice of a Virgin to the Nile. 

The painting of this subject, of which the etching shows 
the upper portion only, was exhibited at the Salon in 1867. 

This impression once formed a part of the collection of the 
late Philip Gilbert Hamerton. In the lower left-hand corner of 
the margin he has written, " There is considerable power in 
this plate." 

FLAMENG, LEOPOLD, [French School.] 

Born at Brussels, of French parents, in 1831. He studied 
line engraving with Calamatta, but soon turned his attention to 
etching. Upon the foundation of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts in 
1859, Flameng was chosen as one of the two artists to provide 
etchings for the new periodical. Leon Gaucherel was the other. 
Later, these two were joined by Gaillard and Jacquemart, but 
for some years Flameng, single-handed, maintained the high 
artistic standard set in the beginning. His ability, even then, 
was truly remarkable, and he seemed to translate with equal 
facility and success paintings of old and modern masters as 
varied in style as in subject. His numerous original etchings, 
also, are not the least interesting portion of his extensive work. 
They treat a variety of subjects. 

All the honors that can be awarded to an etcher, including 
the Grand Medal of Honor of the Paris Salon, have been his. 
He has created an epoch in art, and is emphatically a master 
both through his own unsurpassed works and through his fa- 
mous disciples. It is not without warrant that the great contem- 
porary school of reproductive etching is known as the " School 
of Leopold Flameng." 

" He can overcome any technical difficulty that Rembrandt 
himself could overcome ; and it is not an exaggeration of the 
truth to affirm that there exists in Europe in our own day a man 
who may be said to possess the hand and eye of Rembrandt, 
though not that force of imagination which was the source and 
motive of his energy." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," 

P- 399) 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. VI., 
pp. 101-134. 



12 

P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 150-154, s^^- 
372, 398-404. 

FREDERICK KEPPEL, "THE MODERN DISCIPLES OF REM- 
BRANDT." 

Amsterdam. 

Beraldi, No. 46. 

An original dry-point, of which three proofs only were 
printed. It formed one of a series of seven plates of Holland 
views. 

Portrait of Leopold Flameng. 

Beraldi, No. 301. 

The artist has here portrayed himself attired in the costume 
of a German trooper of the fifteenth century. 

GEROME, JEAN LEON. [French School.] 

Born at Vesoul, May 11, 1824. 

A pupil, in painting, of Paul Delaroche, whom he accom- 
panied to Rome, and of Gleyre, after his return from Italy. In 
1847 he obtained a third-class medal for " The Cock Fight," and 
in the following year increased his reputation by his " Anac- 
reon." He then visited Russia and Egypt, whence he brought 
back valuable material, afterwards treated in some of his best- 
known pictures. Since this period he has painted a variety of 
subjects, ancient and modern, which have gained him a place as 
one of the best-known modern French painters. 

He has etched four plates. 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. VII., 

p. 103. 

The Dead Ccesar. 

Beraldi, No. 3. 

A painting of the same subject, by Gerome, hangs in the 
Corcoran Art Gallery at Washington. Etched for " Sonnets et 
Eaux-fortes." 



GRAVESANDE, CHARLES STORM VAN'S. [Dutch 

School.] 
Born at Breda, Holland, in 1841. 
He studied for the bar at the University of Leyden and was 



13 

admitted in 1865. It was not until he had finished his legal 
studies that he commenced to take a serious interest in art. In 
1868 he removed to Brussels, and it was there, at the suggestion 
of his friend, Feligien Rops, that he first commenced the prac- 
tice of etching. 

In the Salon of 1873 he was represented by eight or ten plates, 
and from that time his reputation has steadily grown. 

He has produced about four hundred plates. Among them 
are some that entitle him to a position as one of the best 
original etchers of the nineteenth century. 

" Holland (of old the land of etchers /i3;r excellence) has, in our 
day, produced in the person of Storm van's Gravesande one 
veritable master. His etchings and dry-points deserve the great 
reputation which they have won, and he is to-day one of the 
favorites with American connoisseurs. A remarkable feature in 
his work is the apparent ease and simplicity with which the 
most beautiful effects are realized. One of our best critics 
writes : ' I find Storm van's Gravesande the ideal painter-etcher, 
whose lines are so fused and lost in the perfect whole, that we 
feel and see what is done, with never a thought for the means 
whereby it got itself done. It is a comfort to sit down before 
the work of such an artist as this.'" (Frederick Keppel, "The 
Modern Disciples of Rembrandt.") 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. VII., 

pp. 223-228. 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 133-137. 
FREDERICK KEPPEL, "THE MODERN DISCIPLES OF REM- 
BRANDT." 
RICHARD A. RICE, "CATALOGUE OF ETCHINGS AND DRY-POINTS 
BY CHARLES STORM VAN'S GRAVESANDE." 

A Room in the Artisfs House. 

This fine impression was printed by the artist. 

HADEN, SIR FRANCIS SEYMOUR. [English School.] 

Born in London, September 16, 1818. 

In 1837 he took the medical course at the University of 
London, that of the Sorbonne (Paris) in 1838, and filled, in 1839, 
the post of anatomist at the Military Hospital of Grenoble. 

In 1840 he returned to Paris, passed his final examinations 
in medicine and surgery, and then returned to England, where, 
in 1842, he became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. 



14 

It was in 1858 that he first seriously turned his attention to 
etching, and in this and the two succeeding years the majority 
of the thirty plates published in 1866 under the title of " Etudes d 
I'eau forte " were etched. 

From the first they were most highly praised, and estab- 
lished his reputation — which later work has strengthened — as 
the greatest etcher of landscape of this (or perhaps any) 
century. 

" Of his place and rank among etchers it may be necessary 
now to speak. He is frankly a pupil of Rembrandt, but so 
thoroughly modern that tradition never stands between him 
and nature. Haden has nothing in common with the English 
School of Etching. . . . His manner is so entirely in har- 
mony with the nature of the art that no man's work, except 
Rembrandt's, is a safer example in this respect. . . . He 
never even wishes to transgress the limits of the art ; but works 
happily within them, as a sea-captain commands his own ship. 
Consequently, he never imitates engraving, or betrays a hanker- 
ing after other methods, or wants etching to do more than it 
naturally can do. . . . He is a master of foliage and has 
drawn some trees magnificently, both as to wood and leaves ; 
there is no better stem or branch drawing than his in all con- 
temporary art." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 
299-300.) 

SIR WILLIAM RICHARD DRAKE, F.S.A., "A DESCRIPTIVE CATA- 
LOGUE OF THE ETCHED WORK OF FRANCIS SEYMOUR 
HADEN." 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX«. SIECLE," Vol. VIII., 

pp. 13-56. 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 294-315. 
P. G. HAMERTON, "MR. SEYMOUR HADEN'S ETCHINGS." Scrib- 
ner's Monthly Magazine, August, 1880. 

FREDERICK KEPPEL, "THE MODERN DISCIPLES OF REM- 
BRANDT." 

FREDERICK WEDMORE, " FOUR MASTERS OF ETCHING," pp. i-n. 

FREDERICK WEDMORE, "ETCHING IN ENGLAND," pp. 45-61. 

FREDERICK WEDMORE, "FINE PRINTS," pp. 100-106. 

A Riverside — Devon. 

Drake, No. 117. 

Published in " Sonnets et Eaux-fortes." 



15 

The plate is destroyed. Undescribed state, with additional 
work upon the trees seen through the opening in the trees grow- 
ing on the bank. 

Scotch Firs, 

Drake, No. 200. 

This plate was etched on zinc in 1882. Drake's catalogue 
describes only 185 etchings, but the catalogue has been carried 
forward by Mr. Samuel P. Avery to include this. 



HILLEMACHER, FREDERIC. [French School.] 

Born at Brussels in iSii. 

Although he entered into a business career at the early age 
of thirteen, and was actively employed for the sixty years fol- 
lowing, he found time, nevertheless, for the cultivation of his 
artistic abilities, both as a musician and an etcher. His plates 
number several hundred, the most successful being a series of 
portraits of actors and actresses of the XVII. and XVIII, cen- 
turies. 

He died October 28, 1886. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XlXe. SIECLE," Vol. VIII., 
pp. I18-123. 

The Gold- Weigher. 

Etched in 1847 from the painting by Joseph Nicolas Robert- 
Fleury. 

HUET, PAUL. [French School.] 

Born at Paris, October 5, 1804. 

A pupil, in painting, of Paul Guerin, of Baron Gros and of 
the Ecole des Beaux- Arts. He was one of the prime movers in 
the Romantic movement (being a precursor of Theodore Rous- 
seau and Jules Dupre), and has left good work in painting, 
etching and lithography. He was among the first lithographers 
who fully realized the capabilities of the process, and availed 
himself of them. Some of his etchings, published as early as 
1835, show a feeling akin to that of Sir Seymour Haden for the 
beauties of modern landscape. 

He died at Paris, January 9, 1869, 



i6 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIXe, SIECLE," Vol. VIII. 
pp. 128-136. 

PH. BURTY, " PAUL HUET. NOTICE BIOGRAPHIQUE ET CRITIQUE 
SUIVIE DU CATALOGUE DE SES CEUVRES." 

Ruisseau de Saint- Pierre pres Pierrefojids. 

Beraldi, No. 77. 

Saulee aux Environs de Paris. 

Beraldi, No. 81. 

JACQUE, CHARLES. [French School.] 

Born in Paris, May 23, 1813. 

At the age of seventeen he was placed with a geographical 
engraver, and at this time etched his first plate. Not liking the 
work given him to do, he entered the army and served for seven 
years, being present at the siege of Antwerp. 

After two years spent in England, where he worked as a 
draughtsman on wood, Jacque returned to Paris, and never 
afterwards left France. He had relations in Burgundy, and 
during his visits to them he found the material for many of his 
etchings. In 1842 Jacque began seriously to turn his attention 
to etching, and since that time has executed more than four 
hundred plates. Numerous medals have been awarded to him, 
both for his paintings and etchings. In 1889 his superb plate, 
" La Bergerie Bearnaise," was awarded the Medal of Honor at 
the Paris Exposition of 1889. 

He died at Paris in 1893. 

" Charles Jacque can work, when in the humor, in as genuine 
a way as any master whatever, but he is subject to a hankering 
after dainties in execution. . . . He draws very admira- 
bly when the subject of his drawing is one that he has a great 
affection for ; I have noticed, for instance, that in his farmyards 
the utensils are drawn with a degree of truth and precision very 
unusual in art, and no man ever drew poultry better. . . . 
H!is deep and sincere love of simple country life gives a great 
charm to many of his etchings, and is entirely conveyed to the 
spectator. . . . No artist ever had the sentiment of rusticity 
in a purer form than Jacque." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and 
Etchers," p. 190.) 



17 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEUR DU XIX^ SifeCLE," Vol. VIII., 
pp. 163-192. 

J. J. GUIFFREY, " L'CEUVRE DE CHARLES JACQUE, CATALOGUE DE 
SES EAUX-FORTES ET POINTES SECHES." 

P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 189-194. 

Jotieur de Giiitare, 

Guiffrey, No. 64. 

Pay sage, Chariot Attele de Bo^^lfs. 

Guiffrey, No. 103. 



Guiffrey, No. 114. 



Guiffrey, No. 115. 



Toit a Pores. 



Paysage. 



JACQUEMART, JULES. [French School.] 

Born at Paris in 1837. 

The son and pupil of Albert Jacquemart, the author of the 
" Histoire de la Porcelaine," for which the son etched the illus- 
trations. Another work in which he was concerned was " Les 
Gemmes et Joyaux de la Couronne " (a masterpiece in sixty 
plates), which confirmed the reputation he had acquired by the 
plates for the " Histoire de la Porcelaine," as one of the most 
wonderful etchers in the history of the art. 

In 1869 he received the Cross of the Legion of Honor, and 
in 1873, owing to an incurable disease of the lungs, the result of 
a fever of a typhoid kind contracted in Vienna, where he was 
one of the Jury of the International Exhibition, his career as an 
etcher practically terminated. 

From this time until his death, which occurred at Paris in 
1880, his winters were spent at Mentone, where he devoted him- 
self to water-color painting, in which he obtained a great and 
well-merited success. 

His etchings number almost four hundred plates and in- 
clude many masterpieces. 



" From the first he breathed the air of Art. Short as his 
life was, he was happy in the fact that adequate fortune gave 
him liberty, in health, of choosing his work ; and, in sickness, 
of taking his rest. With extremely rare exceptions, he did the 
things that he was fitted to do, and did them perfectly ; and, 
being ill when he had done them, he betook himself to the ex- 
quisite South, where color is, and light — the things we long for 
most when we are most tired in cities — and so there came to 
him, towards the end, a new surprise of pleasure in so beautiful 
a world." (Frederick Wedmore, " Fine Prints," p. 86.) 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX". SifeCLE," pp. 192-213. 
LOUIS GONSE, " L'CEUVRE DE JULES JACQUEMART." 
P. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 183-188, 382- 

387- 
FREDERICK WEDMORE, "FOUR MASTERS OF ETCHING," pp. 

12-27. 
FREDERICK WEDMORE, " FINE PRINTS," pp. 86-97. 

Title Page, ''Etchings of Pictures in the Metro- 
politan Museum, New York!' 

Gonse, No. 271. 

This set comprised twelve etchings from pictures and an 
original etched title page. The marvellous facility with which 
Jacquemart has treated the works of masters so entirely different 
in style, must always remain a matter for study and wonder. 

Hille Bobbe, the Sorceress. 

Gonse, No. 272. 

After the painting by Frans Hals, the elder. Some writers 
attribute this painting to Frans Hals, the younger. 

Head of a Young Girl. 

Gonse, No. 273. 

After the painting by Greuze. 

Repose. 

Gonse, No. 274. 

After the painting by Nicholas Berghem. 

" I had not supposed, when this plate appeared, that etching 



19 

could go so far as this in the imitation of a painter's manner, 
and the peculiar success of it opened to me a most interesting 
field of speculation and hope. . . . The novel element in 
this plate from Berghem is the successful imitation of luminous 
quality in the touches. In work of this kind the touches glisten 
like dewdrops ; they are not paint, but an artful assemblage of 
jewels. . . . Another reflection which occurs is, whether 
Berghem could have etched his own picture in this rich, picto- 
rial manner. We know what his manner was in his etchings — 
brilliant enough, but neither pictorial nor rich. 

A close examination of the workmanship in this plate re- 
veals so much of its secret as is dependent on method merely, 
and not on sensitive interpretation. The lines are never laid 
without great care for their tonic value ; and so soon as any 
line, however short, however apparently necessary to the deline- 
ation of form, would interfere in the least with the tonic value 
of the painter's touch, it is suddenly abandoned, and an empty 
space left to tell the rest of its story. Treatment of this kind 
is as consummate, technically, as etching can be. The line is 
used quite frankly everywhere, and there is no attempt to hide 
it ; but, on the other hand, the artist is never carried away by 
it, not even to the extent of the thousandth part of an inch. The 
entire absence of that tightness of manner which very young 
artists often take for delicacy of drawing, may possibly incline 
some of them to pass by this work slightingly as a careless 
sketch of landscape. Any one of that opinion is invited, with 
due respect, just to copy the face of the woman on its own 
scale." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 383-384.) 

Interior of a Dutch Cottage. 

Gonse, No. 275. 

After the painting by Willem Kalf. 

"At the first glance, a critic half experienced in etching 
might fancy that this plate had been very imperfectly bitten, 
and that the etcher could not draw things clearly ; but he would 
be much mistaken, for it is one of the cleverest in the whole set. 
The subject is the obscure interior of a cottage with an effect of 
dull daylight through an unseen aperture of some kind. The 
play of imperfect light, the passage from light to obscurity, 
have been rendered by the painter with great care, and the one 
effort of the etcher has been to make things clear just to the de- 



gree which the painter intended, and no farther. On the part of 
Jules Jacquemart this must have needed especial self-denial, for 
it so happens that there are many things in this picture which, 
if left to himself, he would have drawn far more brilliantly than 
the painter. To publish an etching of this kind is certainly a 
very high compliment to the art-culture of this generation, as it 
is rather strong meat for babes ; but we are bound to praise the 
forgetfulness of self and the simplicity of purpose in faithful in- 
terpretation of the picture, which are evident throughout this 
work. An uneducated public would see nothing in it — would 
not even be able to make out the objects which are indicated by 
chiaroscuro simply without any explanatory detail, a touch of 
light, a patch of shade, a half-light and a reflection. What is 
the woman doing ? I know, but leave the reader to amuse him- 
self by guessing, with the observation that all northern readers 
will inevitably guess wrong." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and 
Etchers," pp. 385-386.) 

Portrait of Jacob Van Vien. 

Gonse, No. 277. 

After the painting by Marten Van Heemskerk. 
This plate is etched with a certain severity, well in keeping 
withjts subject. 

The Holy Family. 

Gonse, No. 278. 

After the painting by Jakob Jordaens. 

*' A strong plate and full of color-suggestion." (Louis 
Gonse, " L'CEuvre de Jules Jacquemart," p. 61.) 

Portrait of a Young Woman. 

Gonse, No. 279. 

After the painting by Lucas Cranach, the younger. 

" This plate is certainly one of the most interesting of the 
series, as much for the delicacy of the etching of the face as for 
the richness and elaborate detail of the clothes. The artist has 
done an astounding piece of work in rendering the costume, 
embroidered all over with pearls, and with a network of gold 
thread." (Louis Gonse, " L'CEuvre de Jules Jacquemart," 
p. 61.) 



21 

"A very faithful and beautiful imitation of a quaint portrait 
in the costume of the sixteenth century, with a rich coif and 
necklace and a veil. There is an infinity of exquisite work in 
this etching, not only in the richly-patterned dress and back- 
ground, but in the delicate pale shading of the flesh— a delicacy 
which adds much to the force of the fine dark eyes and eye- 
brows. The face has a serene, grave beauty of a very original 
type, and the expression conveys a mixture of tranquillity and 
firmness, implying eminent domestic qualities. Beautiful as it is, 
however, this plate may be taken rather as an example of the versa- 
tility of etching than of its especial liberty and power. It is im- 
possible, and it would be wrong if it were possible, to interpret 
a severe and primitive painting like this with the go which 
would be quite appropriate for an artist like Frank Hals. Jac- 
quemart's merit here has been to enter thoroughly into the 
spirit of his original, and to bring to his work a delicacy and 
right patience answering accurately to the feeling and charac- 
ter of Lucas Cranach himself." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching 
and Etchers," pp. 386-387.) 

Portrait of a Man. 

Gonse, No. 280. 

After the painting by Adriaan De Vries. 

Portrait of a Man. 

Gonse, No. 281. 

After the painting by Bartholomeus van der Heist. 

JACQUEMYNS, MADAME ROLIN. [Belgian School.] 

A Farm in Zeeland. 

KNAUS, LUDWIG. [German School.] 

Born at Wiesbaden, October 10, 1829. 

He first studied at the Diisseldorf Academy and then re- 
moved to Paris. 

In 1857 he visited Italy, lived in Berlin from 1861 to 1866, 
and at Diisseldorf from 1866 to 1874. In 1874 he removed to 
Berlin and held a professorship in the Berlin Academy from 
1874 to 1884, when he resigned. 



He is one of the leaders of the younger Diisseldorf School, 
and the foremost genre painter in Germany. His work is well 
represented in many collections in the United States. 

Portrait of a Man with Long Hair and a Fur 

Cap. 



LE RAT, PAUL. [French School.] 

Born at Paris, September lo, 1849. 

A pupil, in etching, of Leon Gaucherel. He has etched a 
number of excellent plates after old and modern masters, and 
has also executed many original etchings (mostly of a small size), 
portraits and illustrations to books. 

HENRI BERALDI. " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SifeCLE," Vol. IX,, 
pp. 148-150. 

L Homme a la Fenetre. 

Beraldi, No. 14. 

Etched after the painting by Meissonier. First state. Pre- 
sentation proof from the artist to his friend Alphonse Alfred 
Prunaire, the wood-engraver. This plate is considered to be 
one of the best etched by Le Rat. 

Portrait of Gustave GMillaumet. 

Beraldi, No. 23. 
Original etching. 

Gustave Guillaumet is a genre and landscape painter. He 
has also painted a number of pictures of Algerian subjects. 

Portrait of a Doge. 

Fourth state. 



LEYS, BARON HENDRIK. [Belgian School.] 

Born at Antwerp, February 18, 1815. 

He studied in the Antwerp Academy, and under his brother- 



23 

in-law, Ferdinand de Braekeleer. His first works were ex- 
hibited in Brussels in 1833, and he soon acquired a reputation, 
the subjects which he chose — scenes from the mediaeval history 
and customs of his country — contributing much to the popular- 
ity of his works. His later years were much occupied in the ex- 
ecution of decorations for the Hotel-de-Ville at Antwerp, where 
he painted a series of pictures illustrating the history of the 
city. 

He died on August 25, 1869, and a statue has been erected 
in his honor in Antwerp. One of his most celebrated pupils is 
Alma Tadema. 

He has etched about twenty plates. They were greeted, 
upon their publication, with ready recognition and high praise, 
and are, to-day, very interesting examples of true " painter 
etching." 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. IX., 
pp. 174-176. 

PH. BURTY, " LES EAUX-FORTES DE M. HENRI LEYS." (Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts, Vol. 20, p. 467.) 



Faust and Wagner Outside the Walls. 

Beraldi, No. 12. 

Illustrating a sonnet by Theophile Gautier, published in 
''Sonnets et Eaux-Fortes " (1869), called "Promenade hors des 
murs." 

" Quittant, par ce beau Jour, bouquins, matras, cornues, 
Le docteur Faust avec son famulus Wagner, 
S'est assis sur un banc et jouit du bon air. 

" // nous semble revoir des figures connues, 
Wolgemuth et Cranach les gravirent sur bois, 
Et Leys les fait revivre une seconde fois." 



MARTIAL, ADOLPHE P. [French School.] 

His real name was Adolphe Martial Potemont, but he is 
usually spoken of, in catalogues and books of reference, as 
Adolphe Martial only. 

Born at Paris in 1828. Died in 1883. 



24 

" Martial is an etcher of extraordinary industry. His col- 
lection of etchings on Old Paris contains no less than three 
hundred plates, and besides this great work he has published 
several other collections, such as the Salons of 1865, 1866 and 
1868 ; Paris in 1867, Paris during the Siege, Paris Burnt, Paris 
under the Commune, etc. . . . 

The technical skill of Martial is extraordinary, and a few 
years ago, before skill in etching became more general in 
France, he had scarcely an equal in this kind of ability. For 
example, Martial would go to a gallery of pictures and make 
sketches there in his note- book, and afterwards go home and 
take several large plates of copper, and write on the copper an 
account of the pictures, and illustrate it as he went on by many 
sketches of them etched in the text, feeling quite sure that every 
one of the sketches would be successful. . . . Martial's 
Lettre sur V Eau-forte was a feat of this kind. On four large 
plates he gave a written account of the old process, quite com- 
plete as to that process, and illustrated it as he went on, throw- 
ing a sketch in here and there, exactly where it was wanted, and 
all the sketches came quite right. Many another feat of clever- 
ness has he accomplished." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and 
Etchers," pp. 214-215.) 

HENRI BERALDI, "LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SifeCLE," Vol. XI., 
33-36. 

P. G. HAMERTON, " ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 214-216, 218- 
pp. 219. 



Lettre sur les Elements de la Gravttre a V Eau- 
forte. 

Beraldi, No. 19. 

For the assistance of practical students of etching, Martial's 
treatise is here, for the first time, translated into English. The 
process, as described by M. Maxime Lalanne, in his book upon 
the subject, and by the late Philip Gilbert Hamerton in " Etch- 
ing and Etchers " (see "Practical Notes," pp. 407-444), differs in 
some particulars from the methods employed by M. Martial. 

This letter is not only composed and illustrated by the 
artist, but also written by him with the etching needle. When 
it is remembered that on the copper-plate this writing had to be 
done backwards (as the printing reverses it on the proofs, making 



25 

left right and right left), we can realize what a feat of manual 
skill this letter is. 

Remembering that the artist's real name was A. Martial 
Potemont, but that he signed his works "A. P. Martial," it will 
be seen that this letter is one addressed to himself under one 
name and signed by himself under another. 

Letter on the Elements of Etching. By A. Pote- 
mont. Care of Messrs. Cadart & Luquet (the publish- 
ers), 79 rue Richelieu. 

Paris, June, 1864. 

Gentlemen: — I send you the letter which you find enclosed. 
It is from an etcher who is a friend of mine. If you think it 
may be of use to some one I authorize you to publish it in fac- 
simile. (Signed) Martial. 

Paris, i860. 
My Dear Martial: 

Here are the directions which I promised to give you on the 
way to etch and which it is well for you to have so as not to 
lose too much time by mishaps in the process. 

First go to No. 27 rue de la Huchette, an old street where 
(as I have recently read) the Bohemians of the time of Isabeau 
were wont to fill themselves with the smell of the kitchens and 
big cook-shops. 

On entering by the Place St. Michel you will hear the sound 
of dull and repeated blows. It is Goddard, the copper-plate 
worker. From him you can procure, for six and a half francs 
per kilogram, copper-plates suitably prepared for etching. Do 
not be too economical by selecting too thin a plate — for several 
reasons, the best of which is that such a plate will not yield a 
good impression. 

These pictures will For tools, three, or, let us say, four etch- 

show you the width of ing-needles of different sizes.— Here I break 
the line made by each ^ 
of the four needles off for a moment to draw several pictures 

I have drawn (see of the etching-needles, and also to sav that 

needles marked i, 2, . . . . 

3 and 4). It IS a matter of some importance that 

their points must have been carefully 
sharpened, since the shape which I have shown you allows you, 
at will, to perceptibly widen the line by pressure — that is the ad- 
vantage. I would add that it is necessary to blunt them, as may 
be needed, on a piece of wood, so as to make them easy to use 
upon the metal, and you will experience no greater difficulties 



26 

than if you were drawing with a pencil upon paper. Procure 
also a scraper, a burnisher and a hand-vise. These are all the 
tools you need. 

A ball of etcher's varnish, a dabber, formed of a cardboard 
disc padded with wadding, and the whole covered with taffeta 
silk arranged like this. . . . 

A phial of stopping-out varnish, a wax taper, a little spirits 
of turpentine and a bottle of nitric acid will complete your 
materials. You will find all these materials, arranged in a box, 
at Cadart & Luquet's, 79 rue Richelieu, where you also will find 
an etching studio and may have all the directions you will need. 

Now, if you wish, we will proceed in due order : — 

To Varnish the Plate. — Take your copper in your right 
hand — that is, if you are not left-handed — clasp it in the vise, 
the jaws of which you have protected with a piece of folded 
card. Your plate firmly fixed, clean all the spots off and 
warm it over a fire. Then rub the ball of varnish, wrapped in 
taffeta silk, on the copper, just as soon as the latter is hot enough 
to melt the varnish through the silk wrapper. I lay stress on the 
degree of heat, for if you let the varnish scorch — so much the 
worse for you — later it will chip off under your needle. Also 
avoid dust! 

The plate covered with varnish and still warm should be as 
evenly dabbed as possible. Directly after this, you lift it up, 
turn it over and smoke it. 

In using the dabber you have spread the varnish evenly, but 
it still remains transparent, and in this condition it would be 
difficult to see the mark made by a fine etching-needle. Smok- 
ing the plate obviates this difficulty. Smoke your " ground " 
by moving under it the flame of a wax taper or oil lamp until 
the varnish is of a solid black. That done, put the plate in a 
safe place to cool. 

How TO Etch on the Prepared Plate. — Draw with the 
needles upon the varnished and blackened plate just as you 
would with pen and ink upon vellum, the only difference being 
that your drawing will show the color of the copper and appear 
light upon the blackened background. This is but a trifling in- 
convenience and one which will not trouble you after you have 
made several etchings. But above all, after you have seen the 
result of a trial-proof you will have to employ several sittings in 
retouching your plate conscientiously. 



27 

Do not forget the Whether you content yourself with a 

lr""e"wkh«„:p°a°rt° "ere sketch, or whether you desire to 
paper stretched over render finely-wrought details, your needles 

it-a nail and a cord- ^^jj^ advantageously replace the best de- 

such as this gentleman & y r- 

has in the picture. vices for pen drawing. The reason is 

not far to seek, for you obtain, upon 

your proof, the effect of a pen drawing. 

Use your new tools, then, without ceremony — sky, earth and 
your fellow-men are always admirable models. Revive the spirit 
of Callot, Israel or Rembrandt! 

Take care, also, to press sufficiently hard on the needle to 
feel the copper under its point. In the event of a line being 
wrongly drawn use the "stopping-out" varnish (its name indi- 
cates its use, which is to cover faulty portions of your work), 
then redraw as you please. 

Now as to the alternate use of coarser or finer needles on 
the same plate, the method is of the simplest. When your sub- 
ject is a view or prospect, the foreground should be etched with 
the coarsest needles, and thus, in retreating gradation, to the 
sky, which should be etched with the finest. Be sure to ascer- 
tain, however, if this method will best express what you have in 
mind. This will depend on your system of drawing. Only 
know beforehand what your intention is and all will be well. 
You see how accommodating I am! 

These etchings were To etch with some exactitude you can 

all drawn with the transfer your drawing or your sketch to 

r„S^°„"«Ag';httag the varnished plate by the help of tracing 

due to the biting. paper, red chalk or pastel, and a rounded 

steel point. 

Biting In. — Varnish the margins of your finished plate, 
upon which you have been trying your needles, and if the copper 
is small, varnish the back of the plate also. 

Now purchase a china dish (or one of rubber or of solid 
gold, according to your means), and in it place your copper- 
plate. Mix half a tumbler of water, exactly, with half a tumbler 
of nitric acid (which you can procure at the nearest chemist's). 
Empty the mixture into the dish, and, consequently, upon the 
copper-plate. (Needless to say, if the plate is not sufficiently cov- 
ered, you can add more acid and water in the same proportions.) 
This etching of an ^^^er five minutes withdraw the cop- 

individual promenad- per-plate from its bath (and, unless you 
ing in the shadow of ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ fingers yellow, I advise 

his own hair was bit- -' a j j 

ten in for twenty min- you to get two rubber finger protectors for 

utes The background this operation). Dip it in pure water and 

was bitten in for eight ^ ' ^ ^ 

minutes. dry it by gently touching it with a soft rag. 



28 

Uncover with the scraper a very small part of that portion 
of your plate which should be most lightly bitten. Now exam- 
ine it. If the lines have not been deeply enough bitten, revar- 
nish that portion of your plate and put it in the acid bath once 
more. If, on the contrary, you consider that that part of your 
plate is sufficiently bitten, cover all of the lightest lines with 
the varnish and replace the plate in the bath, so that the re- 
maining lines may be more deeply bitten. By carefully and 
gradually " stopping out " others of the lighter lines and re- 
placing the plate in the bath every five minutes, you cannot 
help obtaining a satisfactory gradation of biting. You must 
also know that the acid bites more quickly in summer than in 
winter. The results produced in five minutes in warm weather 
will equal those of ten minutes in winter. 

In biting a large plate, modeling-wax, made soft in warm 
water, is used instead of a china dish. The plate is edged 
round with wax, thus forming a tray, of which the bottom is the 
copper-plate and the wax border the sides. Into this tray the 
diluted acid is poured ; then it is emptied, by one of the cor- 
ners, into a vessel of some kind, the plate rinsed in water and 
sponged dry, so that if not yet entirely bitten the process may 
be continued. 

The lady in this etch- In this landscape the sky was drawn 

d|ht''minutes,"thesky with lines of equal strength. Gradation 
and the trees for twelve has been obtained by covering a strip near 
di'sunce for fiS the horizon with stopping-out varnish after 
minutes, and the back- six or seven minutes' biting. Another strip 

ground for twenty min- ^^^ covered after four more minutes, then 
utes. ' 

a third strip after four minutes longer, and 

so on up to the tenth biting. The sky finished, the same process 
was repeated for the ground. 

The plate can also The most vigorous portions of the 

be rebitten by first work can be Still more strengthened and 
passing a roller cover- . , , , ^ i ^ • , ti i 

ed with a special var- enriched by freely applying the undiluted 

nish over it. and by ^cid with the brush until the varnish com- 

again immersing it in 11 

the acid. The roller mences to break. 

covers the surface of J do not think of anything to add to 

the plate, but does not , . , ^^ ■ , ^ ^ 

fill up the lines. this chaper. One important precept must 

direct and govern you in this interesting 
matter of the biting: Watch without ceasing and keep on watching. 

The varnish is removed with spirits of turpentine. 

Printing. — The printer plays an important part in the pro- 
duction of an etching. I will show you how, immediately. 



29 

It is here easy to see This picture was etched, so to speak, 

the rebitten lines— -j^ yme only : the printer it is who has pro- 

those outlining the fig- , , . , . , . , . , 

ure and building. duced the tints by inking his plate so as 

to imitate the shading, which I drew for 
him upon the first proof. You can judge of the advantage of 
this kind of inking in printing, either to produce tone or to 
give warmth and brilliance to the impression. 

It only now remains for you to select a printer for your 
work. Choose one of those excellent practitioners whose name 
and address you will find, as printer, under any good modern 
etching. 

Do you want a trial-proof only? Are you, perchance, far 
distant from the paved banks of the Seine? In the absence of a 
copper-plate printer, you will find in other places lithographic 
presses, and they will give good and satisfactory proofs of your 
etching. 
Here the cross-hatch- RETOUCHING.— If, after seeing your 

ing has been added trial-proof, you are not satisfied, revarnish 
after the first biting ; , , , , / i • i i 

the sky and light shad- the etched plate (taking care that the 

ing after the second melted varnish covers the entire surface of 
the tree, the acid has the plate and enters the bitten lines). Re- 
been applied without trace, with the needle, the lines that do not 
seem to you dark enough (please look at 
the sketch on the margin), add the cross-hatching and shadows, 
strengthen the values of the defective parts, and bite it once 
more. 

To soften parts needing it, there are three ways only — to 
rub it down with the burnisher, to scrape it, or to beat it up 
from behind. 

These are, in brief, your methods and materials : Needles 
of all kinds, biting of various degrees of strength, shading as 
you want it, and retouches without end. 

I will not confuse you with stipple or roulette, nor with 
aqua-tint. These methods, more or less worked in black, which 
may enliven etching in varying its effects, I do not mention, 
as I do not make use of them. 

The processes which I outline are sufficient for you to pro- 
duce this species of engraving — the strongest and most perfect 
auxiliary to painting. 

By the combination of its elements, and without falling 
into Chinese eccentricities, you can interpret, create or draw in 
a durable way — but, excuse me, I have no more room. I will 
not, therefore, mention the old masters of etching. A friendly 



30 

word in closing : Make many trials and have some patience ; it 
is worth the trouble. ^ Pot^mgnt. 

Riviere sous Bois. 

Beraldi, No. 23. 

MILLET, JEAN FRANCOIS. [French School.] 

Born at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, on October 4, 1814. 

At an early age Millet showed a strong bent toward art, 
and when eighteen commenced his artistic studies under 
Mouchel at Cherbourg. In 1837, after some additional study 
with the painter Langlois, he went to Paris, and there entered 
the studio of Delaroche, where Diaz, Rousseau and Corot were 
among his fellow pupils. 

In 1840 his work was first exhibited at the Salon. In the 
same year he returned to his native country and for some months 
earned a living painting signboards at Cherbourg, and it was at 
this time that he met and married his first wife. He returned 
to Paris in 1842, where within three years his wife died, and in 
1845 he again married. Years of poverty and privation followed, 
and in 1849 Millet moved to Barbizon. Here he rented a 
cottage, where he lived until his death, which occurred on the 
20th of January, 1875. 

Although medals were awarded to him at the Salons of 1853 
and 1864, and a first-class medal at the Paris Universal Exhibi- 
tion of 1867 (at which time he was also made a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor), his pictures brought but small prices dur- 
ing his lifetime. 

As an etcher Millet is now, justly, ranked amongst the great 
masters. The number of plates is but twenty-one, but among 
them are masterpieces. Even during his lifetime they were not 
entirely unappreciated, for in the Gazette des Beaux Arts for Sep- 
tember, 1861, they were catalogued and commented upon by 
Philippe Burty, while so great a master as the fatally neglected 
Meryon at once perceived their quality. None the less, the 
general public, the buying public, by whom alone an etcher can 
live, would have none of them. Few were printed, for few were 
wanted, and to-day fine impressions of the best plates will bring, 
at auction, prices that would have, probably, seemed fabulous to 
Millet. 



31 

HENRI BERALDI, "LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SifeCLE," Vol. X., 
pp. 63-71. 

PH. BURTY, " LES EAUX FORTES DE M. J.— F. MILLET." (Gazette 

des Beaux-Arts, September, 1861.) 
ALFRED LEBRUN, "THE ETCHINGS AND OTHER PRINTS OF 

JEAN FRANgOIS MILLET." Translated from the French by 

Frederick Keppel. 
FREDERICK WEDMORE, "FINE PRINTS," pp. 67-68. 

La Fileiise. 

Le Brun, No. 21. 

Second state, with the five lines in the upper left-hand 
corner of the plate erased. 

This etching appeared in the volume published by M. 
Lemerre — "Sonnets et Eaux-f ortes " (1869). The plate was 
destroyed after the 350 impressions arranged for had been 
printed. 

QUEYROY, ARMAND. [French School.] 

He has etched a number of plates of churches, castles and 
public buildings of Central France, also some landscapes and 
scenes of peasant life. 

Philip Gilbert Hamerton, writing in 1875, says of the 
etched work of M. Queyroy : " His etchings, already very 
numerous, will possess a lasting interest as records of old 
France. He is always animated by an honest love of his subject ; 
he has also quite sufficiently overcome the difficulties of art to 
express himself with perfect clearness." Victor Hugo, also, in 
the Gazette des Beaux- Arts (1862), expressed his interest and 
appreciation of Queyroy's etchings. 
HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. XL, 

PP- 56-57- 
p. G. HAMERTON, "ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 221-222. 

Paysans du Bourbonnais. 



RAJON, PAUL. [French School.] 
Born at Dijon in 1844. 
At an early age he was employed by his brother-in-law, a 



32 

photographer, to retouch negatives, but just as soon as he could 
save fifty francs he went to Paris, Here he supported himself 
by work in retouching, while studying painting in the studio 
of Pils during the time he could spare from his business. 
At this period he had for friends Burty, Steinheil and Bracque- 
mond, and from this last-named artist he learned the processes of 
etching. His ambition was to become a painter, and etching 
was only entered into as a means of livelihood less irksome than 
that of working for photographers. Not having opportunity or 
time to study the works of the older engravers and etchers, 
Rajon was forced to originate a style of his own. There are 
many masterpieces by him to show how good a style it became 
with use. 

In 1873 he visited England. Here his success was immediate 
and great. Some of his finest plates were etched about this 
time. Later, so numerous were his commissions, his work 
showed signs of weariness, and, in some of his large etchings 
from paintings, was of an inferior quality. He was at his best 
in his small plates, and his portraits, often from his own de- 
signs, are especially noteworthy. 

He died in 1888. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^. SIECLE," Vol. XL, 
pp. 151-167. 

P. G. HAMERTON, " ETCHING AND ETCHERS," pp. 373-376- 

Mademoiselle Delaporte (of the Gymnase 
Theatre). 

Beraldi, No. 120. 
Etched in 1870. 

Second state, with the etcher's name, and with added work 
in the hair. 



RIBOT, THEODULE. [French School.] 

Born at Breteuil (Eure), August 8, 1823. 

In painting he has treated religious, historical and domestic 
subjects, and also painted a number of portraits. His style is 
very vigorous. 

In 1878 he was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 
and died in 1891. 



33 

His etchings often display the same qualities and treat the 
same subjects as his paintings. 

Les Epluchettrs. 

One of a series of six plates, illustrating scenes of the 
kitchen. This series is considered to be one of the most charac- 
teristic of the artist's productions. 

HENRI BERALDI, " LES GRAVEURS DU XIX^ SIECLE," Vol. XI 
pp. 195-196. 



RIDLEY, M. W. [English School.] 

Born in 1837, 

" He has etched a few plates, chiefly of shipping on tidal 
rivers. He is a very genuine etcher, apparently of the school of 
Whistler, but in those plates of his which have been published 
up to the present time, I do not see much evidence of very keen 
or subtle observation, whilst they certainly (being merely 
studies) exhibit no power of composition. ... So far as 
he has hitherto gone, he is on the right track ; but in his praise- 
worthy rebellion against the superfine school he is temporarily 
primitive in method and seems at present to have little concep- 
tion of the different sources of power which are open to the 
aquafortist, or to deny himself their advantages." (P. G. Ham- 
erton, " Etching and Etchers," pp. 346-347.) 

Draham Harbour. 

"A true etching in the simple manner; the etched line is 
relied upon everywhere." (P. G. Hamerton, " Etching and 
Etchers," p. 349.) 



LINE ENGRAVING. 

HALPIN, FREDERICK. [American School.] 

Born at Worcester, England, in 1805. 

A pupil of his father, who followed the business of an en- 
graver in the Staffordshire Potteries. After his father's death, 
which took place in London when Frederick Halpin was about 



34 

twenty-two years of age, he turned his attention to pictorial en- 
graving and executed some excellent pieces. 

In 1842 he came to America and settled in New York City. 
His works are admirably engraved and show fine draughtsman- 
ship, the portrait plates being especially well done. He died in 
Jersey City in 1880. 
W. S. BAKER, "AMERICAN ENGRAVERS AND THEIR WORKS." 

Portrait of Asher B. Durand. 

Line engraving after the painting by C. L. Elliott. 

Asher Brown Durand was born in South Orange, New Jer- 
sey, August 21, 1796. He was one of the best engravers America 
has produced. In 1835 he turned his attention to painting, and 
visited Europe in 1840. He was one of the original members of 
the National Academy of Design (New York), and its President 
from 1845 to 1 86 1, 

An exhibition of his engraved works was made at the 
Grolier Club in April, 1895. 



LITHOGRAPHS. 

Fac- Simile of the Original Charter Granted by 
King Richard III. (of England) to the 
IVorshipful Company of Wax Chand- 
lers of the City of London. 

This reproduction is of the same size as the original vellum. 
The illumination in gold and colors has been especially well 
rendered. 

Fac- Simile of the Original Marriage Certificate 

of King Charles II. (of England) with 

Catherine of Braganza. 

The original document is in the Parish Register Book, St. 
Thomas', Portsmouth, and is dated 1662, 



35 

A Lacquer Cabinet. 

Made by Kajikawa, the first lacquer-worker to lyetruna, the 
4th Shogun, [650-1680 A. D. 

The original cabinet is in the Bowes Collection. It meas- 
ures 26x25 inches. 

This reproduction is a magnificent example of lithographic 
printing. 



Portrait of Samuel P. Avery (i860). 

A half-tone reproduction of the pencil drawing made from 
life at 48 Beekman Street, New York, by Thos. C. Farrer, i860. 






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